How to Know Things

Part of the Art of Learning Series

You can’t just believe what you are told. Knowledge is maintained through the application of philosophical, rhetorical, and literary skills. Knowledgeable people don’t just hold correct opinions, they have reasons for doing so. They can distinguish good from bad questions, share a sense of humor, and passionately disagree with each other. They don’t just think and say that they know something; they write it down. All of these capacities require years, not just of learning, but of discipline. Like any art, you develop it through practice.

Here are my (lightly retouched) drawings.

See also: “How to Make Up Your Mind“, “How to Speak Your Mind” and “How to Write Prose”